To investigate the effects of electro-acupuncture on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced angiogenesis and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in rats.Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 24 rats each. ICH was induced in 3 groups by stereotactic injection of collagenase type VII into the right globus pallidus; of these, one group was not further treated, the second group underwent Zusanli (ST36)-acupuncture, and the third group underwent non-acupoint acupuncture. The fourth group underwent sham operations. Acupuncture was performed by stimulation with electrical needles at frequencies of 2-20 Hz for 30 min per day. Angiogenesis on days 3, 7 and 14 was assessed by double immunolabeling, and expression of HIF-1α was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled nuclei in cerebral endothelial cells (ECs) resided around the hematoma and the labeling peaked from 7 to 14 days (P<0.01). HIF-1α positive microvessels with a dilated outline were detected in perihematomal tissues after ICH, with the vessels extending into the clot from the surrounding area beginning on day 7. Following ICH, HIF-1α protein levels increased (P<0.05), but HIF-1α mRNA levels did not change. Electro-acupuncture at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint increased BrdU-labeled nuclei in cerebral ECs (P<0.05) and up-regulated the expression of HIF-1α protein (P<0.05), but had little effect on the spatial distribution of HIF-1α or on HIF-1α mRNA levels. Conclusions: Electro-acupuncture treatment at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint may accelerate ICH-induced angiogenesis by up-regulating HIF-1α protein, and may enhance recovery following hemorrhagic cerebral injury.
There is increasing use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), particularly amongst patients with cancer. This paper aims to better understand the types of CAM people are using and explore the reasons for using these approaches. This paper will also identify what patients want from health professionals in relation to CAM and the actions and attitudes of health professionals towards CAM. Finally, this paper will discuss the potential implications for health services.Two surveys were conducted, a self-administered survey was completed by oncology patients; and a second online survey completed by staff.Patients used CAM as an adjunct to services they receive from conventional health services, not as an alternative. The positive and empowering role that complementary health practices play in people's lives was a common theme as was the need for CAM to be used with care. Survey responses by health care staff revealed mixed views of CAM. Most staff had positive views about CAM as a treatment adjunct and said they responded to patients accordingly. Only a minority expressed scepticism and were less inclined to support CAM use by their patients. Nevertheless, few staff instigated discussions around CAM.This paper presents key considerations for health services wanting to better respond to CAM and adopt an integrated approach to health care.
A novel approach for copy number variation analysis by combining multiplex PCR with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
J Biotechnol. 2013 May 1; Gao Y, Chen X, Wang J, Shangguan S, Dai Y, Zhang T, Liu J
With the increasing interest in copy number variation as it pertains to human genomic variation, common phenotypes, and disease susceptibility, there is a pressing need for methods to accurately identify copy number. In this study, we developed a simple approach that combines multiplex PCR with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for submicroscopic copy number variation detection. Two pairs of primers were used to simultaneously amplify query and endogenous control regions in the same reaction. Using a base extension reaction, the two amplicons were then distinguished and quantified in a mass spectrometry map. The peak ratio between the test region and the endogenous control region was manually calculated. The relative copy number could be determined by comparing the peak ratio between the test and control samples. This method generated a copy number measurement comparable to those produced by two other commonly used methods - multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, it can discriminate a wide range of copy numbers. With a typical 384-format SpectroCHIP, at least six loci on 384 samples can be analyzed simultaneously in a hexaplex assay, making this assay adaptable for high throughput, and potentially applicable for large-scale association studies.
Abstract Background: Physiotherapy has a very important role for the maintenance of the integumentary system integrity. Very few evidence exists in humans. Nevertheless, there are some studies about tissue regeneration using low level laser therapy (LLLT). Aim: To analyse the effectiveness of LLLT on scar tissue. Methods: Seventeen volunteer subjects were stratified by age of their scars, and then randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) - n= 9 -, and a placebo group (PG) - n= 8. Fifteen sessions were applied to both groups 3 times a week. However in the PG the laser device was switched off. Scars' thickness, length, width, macroscopic aspect, pain threshold, pain perception and itching were measured. Results: After 5 weeks there were no statistically significant differences in any variable between both groups. Therefore, analysing independently each group, EG showed a significantly improvement in macroscopic aspect (p=0,003) using LLLT. Taking into account scars' age, LLLT showed in EG a tendency to decrease older scars' thickness. Conclusion: The intervention with LLLT appears to have a positive effect on the macroscopic scars' appearance, and on old scars' thickness, in the studied sample. However, it cannot be said for sure that LLLT has influence on scar tissue.
Effects of acupuncture on the harmonic components of the radial arterial blood-pressure waveform in stroke patients.
Biorheology. 2013 Jan 1; 50(1): 69-81 Hsiu H, Hsu CL, Chen CT, Hsu WC, Lin FC
Stroke induces abnormal microcirculatory blood flow perfusion resistance in cerebral vascular beds, which may in turn alter the arterial pulse transmission. This study aimed to determine if the frequency-domain harmonic index for the blood-pressure waveform is useful in monitoring the microcirculatory blood flow perfusion response in cerebral vascular beds of stroke patients following acupuncture stimulation.Bilateral radial arterial blood-pressure waveform and laser-Doppler flowmetry signals were obtained noninvasively before and after acupuncture in 17 stroke patients. The amplitude proportion (Cn) for all the acquired pulses and the coefficient of variance (CVn) for harmonics 1-10 were calculated to evaluate the blood-pressure harmonic variability.The laser-Doppler flowmetry parameters showed that the cerebral microvascular blood flow supply could be improved following acupuncture. For the blood pressure waveform harmonic index, there were significant increases in C5 and C6 and decreases in CV5 and CV7 on the stroke-affected side, but no significant changes on the contralateral side.Cn values might reflect changes in arterial pulse transmission, and the blood-pressure-harmonic-variability response might be partly attributable to cardiovascular regulatory activities caused by acupuncture-induced changes in the cerebral microvascular blood flow perfusion. The present findings of blood pressure waveform harmonic analysis may be useful to the development of a noninvasive and real-time technique for evaluating treatment efficacy in stroke patients.
Community health system leaders often dismiss use of alternative capital to finance strategic facilities as being too expensive and less strategically useful, preferring to follow historical precedent and use tax-exempt bonding to finance such facilities. Proposed changes in accounting rules should cause third-party-financed facility lease arrangements to be treated similarly to tax-exempt debt financings with respect to the income statement and balance sheet, increasing their appeal to community health systems. An in-depth comparison of the total costs associated with each financing approach can help inform the choice of financing approaches by illuminating their respective advantages and disadvantages.
Fungal virulence in a lepidopteran model is an emergent property with deterministic features.
MBio. 2013; 4(3): Garcia-Solache MA, Izquierdo-Garcia D, Smith C, Bergman A, Casadevall A
ABSTRACT Virulence has been proposed to be an emergent property, which by definition implies that it is not reducible to its components, but this application of a philosophical concept to the host-microbe interaction has not been experimentally tested. The goals of our study were to analyze the correlation of the phenotype with the ability to cause disease and to determine the dynamics of an experimental cryptococcal infection in Galleria mellonella and Acanthamoeba castellanii. By studying the outcome of infection as host death, we showed that the dynamics of virulence in the G. mellonella/Cryptococcus neoformans interaction follow a predictable pattern. We also found that the experimental temperature and not the presence of virulence factors was a critical parameter defining the pathogenic potential of cryptococcal species. Our results established that cryptococcal species not considered pathogenic could be pathogens given suitable conditions. Our results support the idea that virulence is an emergent property that cannot be easily predicted by a reductionist approach and yet it behaves as a deterministic system in a lepidopteran cryptococcal infection. These findings provide a road map for evaluating whether host-microbe interactions in other systems are chaotic, deterministic, or stochastic, including those with public health importance. IMPORTANCE Virulence is a complex phenotype that cannot be easily studied by analyzing its individual components in isolation. By studying the outcome of infection as the death of the host, we found that a given microbial phenotype does not necessarily correlate with its ability to cause disease and that the presence of so-called virulence factors does not predict pathogenicity, consistent with the notion that virulence is an emergent property. This paper reports that the dynamics of virulence in Galleria mellonella larvae infected with the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans follows a predictable pattern. Establishing that virulence is an emergent property is important because it implies that it is not reducible to its components, and consequently, this phenomenon needs to be studied by a holistic approach.
[Local adenosine A1 receptors of baihui acupoint mediate cerebral ischemia tolerance induced by Electroacupuncture].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013 Feb 19; 93(7): 537-40 Liang DD, Wang HF, Zhang MX, Dai QX, Liu HP, Mo YC, Wang JL
To investigate whether local A1R of Baihui acupoint mediate cerebral ischemia tolerance induced by electro-acupuncture (EA).Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into five groups, i.e., the sham-operation (S) group, the model group (M), the electroacupuncture (E) group, the CCPA group and the DMSO group. The focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Rats in the E group were received EA pretreatment baihui acupoint at 2 h before established MCAO. The rats in DMSO group and the CCPA group were injected with DMSO (20 µl) and CCPA (0.1 mmol/L) 20 µl into Baihui, respectively, at 2 h before established MCAO. After 24 h reperfusion, the rats' behavior, cerebral infarct volume, the cerebral Bcl-2 protein expression were assessed.Compared with M group, the rats' behavior was improved, the cerebral infarct volume was decreased and the Bcl-2 protein expression was up-regulated (P < 0.05) in the E group. Compared with M and DMSO group, the rats' behavior was improved, the cerebral infarct volume was decreased and the Bcl-2 protein expression was up-regulated (P < 0.05) in the CCPA group. There were no statistical differences between CCPA and E group.EA induced cerebral ischemia tolerance. Local A1R of Baihui acupoint possible mediate cerebral ischemia tolerance induced by Electroacupuncture.